Territorial localization of the knowledge-intensive sector of the economy of Kazakhstan: principles, potential and development scenarios

Territorial localization of the knowledge-intensive sector of the economy of Kazakhstan: principles, potential and development scenarios

Leader of the Research project Brimbetova N. Zh., PhD in Economics, Leading researcher
The purpose of the work at the first stage (2018) is to study the conceptual foundations of localization of knowledge-intensive areas of the economy, features of the concentration of innovation activity in the world and domestic economy, institutional methods of managing the process of formation of knowledge-intensive territorial entities and development of methodological approaches to assessing the level of innovation activity of regions of Kazakhstan.

Main results of the first stage (2018) of the research:
– based on the study and synthesis of theories, current models and concepts, the factors affecting the choice of localization, a complex of measures of state support to create local centers of knowledge-based economy;
– studied, generalized and systematized local forms of innovation activity in the form of clusters, industrial districts, regional and local innovation systems, technology parks, innovation hubs, “learning” regions;
-foreign experience in the formation of institutional management methods for knowledge-intensive territorial entities, which is adapted to various local forms such as clusters, techno parks and business incubators by type of regions, is studied;
-methods of assessing the socio-economic development of regions for determining and evaluating the level and potential of prerequisites for localization of knowledge-intensive sectors of the economy are considered and generalized. Modified Krugman concentration indices were calculated to characterize the local concentration of innovative production on the territory of Kazakhstan.
The aim of the second stage (2019) is to determine the prerequisites for localization of knowledge-intensive areas based on the assessment of the potential for spatial placement of “growth points”, justification of its institutional mechanisms, which will allow developing a typology of regions of Kazakhstan by the level of localization.
Main results of the second stage (2019):
– to identify the prerequisites for the creation, development and placement of new, promising industries of knowledge-intensive sectors of the economy, the level of provision of innovative resources in the regions of Kazakhstan was determined on the basis of a rating methodological approach. Prerequisites for digitalization of the economy of Kazakhstan’s regions using step-by-step methodological tools are identified;
– along with the classical factors of placing a knowledge-intensive economy, such factors as scientific, educational and technological potentials, developed market and institutional environment, and market demand are justified. Analysis of these factors in the regions of Kazakhstan indicates the inevitable “focal” nature of the territorial distribution of knowledge-intensive activities;
– the author substantiates the content of the institutional mechanism for the formation of knowledge-intensive territorial entities (techno parks, territorial clusters and business incubators of technological orientation) as a set of legislative, program, and methodological documents regulating the activities of NTO and regulating the activities of state bodies;
– analysis of the institutional and legal framework governing the activities of knowledge-intensive territorial entities shows that many of the goals set have not been achieved or are not fully achieved due to insufficient scientific, methodological and organizational study of the decisions taken;
– calculations based on modified index of concentration developed a typology of the regions of Kazakhstan the level of concentration of high-tech industries and development of innovative resources that allowed them to evaluate the preconditions for the development of knowledge-intensive sectors of the economy.