High-tech economy: factors of formation, priorities and development mechanisms in Kazakhstan

Knowledge-based economy: formation factors, priorities and development mechanisms in Kazakhstan

Leader of the Research project Alzhanova F. G., Doctor of Economics, Head Researcher

The aim of the first stage (2018) is to identify the factors of the formation of a knowledge-based economy and develop a methodology for its analysis and measurement in Kazakhstan.
Results of the first stage (2018):
– The factors of the formation of a knowledge-based economy are identified taking into account the changing context of their content and development in the conditions of Industry 4.0., Including such as knowledge, human resources, structural factors, the factor of technological globalization, factors of digital preparedness, infrastructure factors, institutional factors.
– The elements of the resource potential of the high-tech economy that determine the change in the structure of the high-tech economy in the context of the development of industry 4.0 are identified, including the identification of new structural elements of the high-tech economy, such as artificial intelligence, robotic systems, machine learning, the virtual environment, and the main groups of challenges for the development of Industry 4.0 are identified.
– Foreign methods of analysis, measurement and evaluation of the knowledge-based economy are generalized, the main criteria and indicators of the knowledge-based economy are highlighted.
– The requirements for the development of a methodology for assessing a knowledge-based economy, which reflect the consideration of factors in the formation of a knowledge-based economy, are justified; data accessibility and transparency; comparability of data and results over time; correlation with the tasks of Modernization 3.0 and Industry 4.0., a working evaluation methodology has been developed, containing factors and indicators of a knowledge-based economy.

Scientific results are reflected in the following foreign rating editions of RSCI and SCOPUS databases:

1. Альжанова Ф.Г., Сатпаева З.Т., Мусаева Д., Дюсебаева Ж., Абилкаир Н. Мегатренды мировой экономики и их влияние на развитие Казахстана (0,45 п.л.) // World Science. – 2018. – Т.3, № 6(34). – С. 12-18. https://doi.org/10.31435/rsglobal_ws/12062018/5829
2. Алибекова Г.Ж. Вопросы оценки эффективности программ коммерциализации (0,3 п.л.) // Экономика и бизнес: теория и практика. – 2018. – № 7. – С. 5-8. https://elibrary.ru/download/elibrary_35377556_69540078.pdf

The aim at the second stage (2019) is to develop forecast scenarios for the development of traditional and new industries in the knowledge-based economy.

Results of the second stage of research (2019):
– analysis and evaluation of changes in traditional industries under the influence of digitalization factors;
– assessment of the initial state, current dynamics and structure of the economy of Kazakhstan;
– forecast scenarios of dynamics and structure of the economy and sectors forming the core of the knowledge-based economy are presented, taking into account the structural features of the knowledge-based economy in the conditions of Industry 4.0.;
– the conditions of synchronization of the third technological modernization with the priorities of Industry 4.0 are considered.

Scientific results are reflected in the following foreign rating editions of RSCI and SCOPUS databases:

1. Альжанова Ф., Днишев Ф. Проблемы модернизации и структурные изменения в Казахстане и странах Евразийского Экономического Союза // Интеллект. Инновации. Инвестиции. – 2019. – № 3. – С. 10-18. https://elibrary.ru/download/elibrary_38243610_39911324.pdf
2. Alzhanova F., Amrin A., Dyussebayeva Zh., Urdabayev M. (2019). Comparative analysis of the dynamics of knowledge-intensive industries in Eurasian Space. KODISA International Conference «Science, Technology and Humanities for Business and Economic Sustainability» (ICBE 2019) in Seoul, South Korea, July 7-10, 2019. Seoul. Dunam Publishing, 2019. P. 223-226. (Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection) https://doi.org/10.35646/kodisa.icbe.2019.7.5.157
3. Днишев Ф.М. Региональные точки роста наукоемких секторов экономики в Казахстане. // РАН ИНИОН. Ежегодник «Россия: тенденция и перспективы развития». – Вып. 14, Ч.2. – М., 2019. – С. 278 – 280. https://elibrary.ru/download/elibrary_41381722_31585061.pdf

The aim of the third stage (2020) is to justify priorities and drivers of growth of the knowledge-based economy in Kazakhstan in the context of technological modernisation.

Results of the third stage of research (2020):

– have been justified the priorities for the development of a knowledge-based economy in Kazakhstan, including 1) modernisation of the basic sectors of the mining industry and energy sector by integrating knowledge-intensive services, digital and green technologies into production processes; 2) knowledge-intensive industries, including pharmaceuticals, production of medical equipment and instruments; 3) knowledge-intensive services, including healthcare services, research and development in medicine and biotechnology, expanding the availability of social services based on digital technologies;

– have been developed the mechanisms for the development of a knowledge-based economy in Kazakhstan, it is recommended to use the criteria of the technological level, the intensity of research and development costs, the potential for complicating the export basket when providing preferences, attracting enterprises to the FEZ, industrial zones, developing maps of industrialisation, as well as to develo corporate innovations (domestic entrepreneurship programs, accelerator programs, innovative hubs, R&D centers);

–  have been considered the growth drivers of knowledge-intensive sectors of Kazakhstan’s economy, it was revealed that in the period from 2015-2019 the index of economic complexity and the share of workers in the manufacturing industry decreased, it was shown that Kazakhstan is experiencing serious difficulties in the drivers of ‘Human Resources’, ‘Sustainable resources’, ‘Global trade and investments’;

– have been justified the Kazakhstani model of the development of a knowledge-based economy, which suggests the possibility of non-linear, selective development of the knowledge-based economy in Kazakhstan, and based on a combination of different development strategies differing in potential, institutions, sources of growth, composition of stakeholders, etc.

Scientific results are reflected in the following publications:

1) Dabylova M.I., Grabara J., Alibekova G. University-business cooperation in Kazakhstan: Influencing factors// Вестник КазНУ. Серия экономическая. – 2020.-№3 (133).- С.4-14. https://doi.org/10.26577/be.2020.vi3.01

2) Айтимова Д., Алибекова Г. Совершенствование управления инновационной деятельностью компаний нефтегазового сектора республики Казахстан//Экономические науки. – 2020. – №4 (185). – с.47-56. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42906524

 3) Альжанова Ф.Г., Нурланова Н.К., Днишев Ф.М. Оценка уровня и приоритетные направления модернизации регионов Казахстана // Проблемы развития территории. – 2020. – №1 (105). С. 124–141. http://www.vscc.ac.ru/files/journal/issues/pdt-2020-1-105-ef234ecbf7–ru.pdf

4) Егоров О.И., Чигаркина О.А. Эколого-экономические проблемы освоения Каспийского шельфа: пути повышения энергетической безопасности // Polish journal of science. – 2020. – №24. – V. 2. – С. 24-28. https://www.polish-science.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/POLISH-JOURNAL-OF-SCIENCE-%E2%84%9624-2020-VOL.-2.pdf

5) Dabylova, M., Sroka, M., & Alibekova, G. (2020). New challenges in education processes at technical faculties in Asian countries of the former Soviet Union. // Production Engineering Archives. – – №26(1). – P.15-18. https://doi.org/10.30657/pea.2020.26.04 

Reference on the use of research results in preparation of the Decree of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated June 8, 2011 № 645 «On approval of the Rules for the accreditation of subjects of scientific and (or) scientific and technical activity» from the Committee of Science of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 1059/16-10 dated 24.06.2019 signed by the deputy chairman E. Sadykov.